Nematode, also called roundworm, any worm of the phylum Nematoda. Nematodes are among the most abundant animals on Earth. They occur as parasites in animals and plants or as free-living forms in soil, fresh water, marine environments, and even such unusual places as vinegar, beer malts, and water-filled cracks deep within Earth’s crust. The number of named species is about 20,000, but it is probable that only a small proportion of the free-living forms have been identified. A great deal of research has been conducted on the parasitic forms because most of them have some medical, veterinary, or economic importance. Nematodes are more commonly called roundworms and can be found in aquatic habitats, soil, snowy tundras and hot deserts, inside plants and animals, and just about every place in between. Just a handful of rich dirt can have several thousand of these tiny worms. Nematodes can be very small, at a millimeter or less, or can reach lengths of up to three feet. Their bodies don't have an internal skeleton like human bodies do; instead they have a cuticle, an exoskeleton that doesn't grow with the worm and so is periodically cast off in a shedding process called molting. Nematodes have muscles that run the length of their bodies that, when contracted, produce a thrashing-like movement that propels them forward.
Most species of roundworm have both males and females and reproduce sexually. A female nematode can produce more than 100,000 fertilized eggs in a single day! They all have a complete digestive system, which means that they have two openings: a mouth and an anus. Like most other animals we're familiar with, nematodes exhibit bilateral symmetry, meaning they have identical right and left halves.
Nematodes usually are introduced into new areas with infested soil or plants. To prevent nematodes from entering your garden by using only nematoda free plants purchased from reliable nurseries. To prevent the spread of nematodes, avoid moving plants and soil from infested parts of the garden.
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